Publications - Pediatrics

The Kynurenine / Tryptophan Ratio is a Sensitive Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis among Indian Children

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2022-12-22
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Frontiers in Immunology
Objectives: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) remains difficult to diagnose. The plasma kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (K/T ratio) is a potential biomarker for TB diagnosis and treatment response but has not been assessed in children. Methods: We performed a targeted diagnostic accuracy analysis of four...

Willingness of Caregivers to Give Preventive Therapy to Children Living in Households of Patients with Rifampin-resistant Tuberculosis

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2022-10-26
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The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
BACKGROUND Pediatric household contacts (HHCs) of patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) are at high risk of infection and active disease. Evidence of caregiver willingness to give MDR-TB preventive therapy (TPT) to children is limited. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of HHCs of...

Concomitant pulmonary disease is common among patients with extrapulmonary TB

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2022-08-12
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Dr. Shivakumar and his group discovered that a high proportion of patients classified as EPTB in India have concomitant PTB. Their results support the need for improved symptom and CXR screening, and recommends routine sputum TB microbiology screening of all Indian patients with EPTB.

Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis among Indian children

Post Date: 
2022-04-01
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International Journal of Tuberulosis and Lung Disease
OBJECTIVE: To assess Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) and Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) performance in diagnosing pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM). METHODS: We conducted a study among children with suspected meningoencephalitis in Pune, India. Clinical, radiological, laboratory, and treatment data were...

Shorter treatment for non-severe tuberculosis in African and Indian children

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2022-03-10
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New England Medical Journal
BACKGROUND Two thirds of children with tuberculosis have nonsevere disease, which may be treatable with a shorter regimen than the current 6-month regimen. METHODS We conducted an open-label, treatment-shortening, noninferiority trial involving children with nonsevere, symptomatic, presumably drug-...

Validation of New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH) FFQ with multiple 24-h dietary recalls among pregnant women in Pune, India

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2021-11-02
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The British Journal of Nutrition
Adequate dietary intake is critical to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. India has a high burden of maternal and child morbidity and mortality, but there is a lack of adequate tools to assess dietary intake. We validate an FFQ, New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH), among pregnant women living with and without HIV in Pune, India.

Tuberculosis in children, adolescents, and women

Post Date: 
2020-02-27
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Lancet Respiratory Medicine
In this Lancet Respiratory Medicine commentary, Dr. Amita Gupta and colleagues note that TB prevalence among children, adolescents, and women isn't well documented. This poses big challenges for the goal of TB elimination.

High prevalence of late presentation of ART-naïve perinatally infected children for care in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2020-02-19
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AIDS Care
AIDS Care : There is an urgent need to identify strategies that improve linkage of perinatally infected ART-naïve children to care, and earlier than what is currently observed.

Transcriptomic profiles of confirmed pediatric tuberculosis patients and household contacts identifies active tuberculosis, infection, and treatment response among Indian children

Post Date: 
2019-12-04
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Infectious Diseases: Gene expression profiles among Indian children with confirmed TB were distinct from those of adults, highlighting the importance of including distinct populations in differential gene expression models

Delays and barriers to early treatment initiation for childhood tuberculosis in India

Post Date: 
2019-10-01
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
BACKGROUND: India accounts for 27% of global childhood tuberculosis (TB) burden. Understanding barriers to early diagnosis and treatment in children may improve care and outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 89 children initiated on anti-TB treatment from a public hospital...

Challenges in conducting trials for pediatric tuberculosis meningitis: lessons learned in the field

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2019-10-01
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: Researchers describe the challenges associated with conducting the first randomized clinical trial of antimicrobial agents in pediatric tuberculosis meningitis.

Inclusion of key populations in clinical trials of new antituberculosis treatments: Current barriers and recommendations for pregnant and lactating women, children, and HIV-infected persons

Post Date: 
2019-08-15
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PLOS Medicine
PLOS Medicine: Dr. Amita Gupta and colleagues discuss the scientific and ethical basis for including pregnant and lactation women, children, and HIV+ patients in tuberculosis therapeutic clinical trials.

Long-acting or extended-release antiretroviral products for HIV treatment and prevention in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women: knowledge gaps and research priorities

Post Date: 
2019-07-15
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Lancet HIV
Lancet HIV : This paper summarizes findings of the Long acting/Extended Release Antiretroviral Resource Program workshop, and offers recommendations for developing ARV products for HIV treatment and prevention in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women

HIV testing uptake among the household contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis index cases in eight countries

Post Date: 
2019-01-07
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : The Indo-JHU Clinical Research Parentership participated in this multinational study to determine if it's feasible to provide HIV testing for household contacts of MDR-TB cases.

Barriers to screening and isoniazid preventive therapy for child contacts of tuberculosis patients

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2018-10-01
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Universal, timely TB screening and IPT for exposed children are urgently needed to reduce pediatric TB in India

Loss to follow‐up and mortality among HIV‐infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2018-06-25
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HIV Medicine
Over 6 years, one-third of HIV+ adolescents in this study discontinued medical treatment, indicating a critical need for retention counselling and closer clinical monitoring.

Shorter treatment for minimal tuberculosis (TB) in children (SHINE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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2018-04-19
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Trials
Trials: Evidence for TB treatment in kids is largely based on adult studies. The SHINE study aims to fix this

Mobile phone incentives for childhood immunizations in rural India

Post Date: 
2018-03-19
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Pediatrics
In Pediatrics: Incentives and technology can improve immunization coverage in young children in resource-poor settings.

Suboptimal antituberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV‐coinfected children in India: Recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-16
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Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily antituberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis...

Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis

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2017-12-07
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PLOS One
PLOS One: Mave and colleagues compared TB drug exposure in plasma and hair samples among a small cohort of children.

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