The association of gestational diabetes with HIV infection and tuberculosis in Indian women

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The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Infection of HIV is associated with an increased diabetes risk, which also increases tuberculosis risk. It is unknown if similar associations exist with gestational diabetes (GDM). We screened pregnant women living with and without HIV for GDM using oral glucose tolerance testing. In a subgroup of women with latent tuberculosis (positive interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] release assay), we used supernatants from tuberculosis antigen tubes to compare cytokine levels from women with and without GDM, matched by age and HIV status. Of 234 women, 21 (9%) had GDM, 13.9% living with HIV, and 6.5% without HIV (P = 0.06). Compared with women without GDM, women with GDM had lower median IFN-γ (19.1 versus 141.9 pg/mL, P = 0.03) and interleukin-2 (18.7 versus 249 pg/mL, P < 0.01). Our study suggests that HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of GDM, which is associated with decreased Mycobacterium tuberculosis immune responses. Gestational diabetes screening should be prioritized in tuberculosis-endemic countries, especially in women living with HIV.

Chebrolu P, Alexander M, Bhosale R, Naik S, Gupte N, Lee MH, Kumar P, Babu S, Fitzgerald D, Gupta A, Mathad J. The Association of Gestational Diabetes with HIV Infection and Tuberculosis in Indian Women. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Aug 1;107(3):569–72. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1106. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35914684; PMCID: PMC9490672.