Pharmacokinetic analysis of linezolid for multidrug resistant tuberculosis at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai, India

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Frontiers in Pharmacology

Linezolid is an oxazolidinone used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), including in the recently-endorsed shorter 6-month treatment regimens. Due to its narrow therapeutic index, linezolid is often either dose-adjusted or discontinued due to intolerance or toxicity during treatment, and the optimal balance between linezolid efficacy and toxicity remains unclear. India carries a significant burden of MDR-TB cases in the world, but limited information on the pharmacokinetics of linezolid and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution is available from Indian MDR-TB patients. We enrolled participants from a tertiary care centre in Mumbai, India, treated for MDR-TB and receiving linezolid daily doses of 600 or 300 mg. Pharmacokinetic visits were scheduled between 1 and 15 months after treatment initiation to undergo intensive or sparse blood sampling. Linezolid concentration versus time data were analysed using non-linear mixed-effects modelling, with simulations to evaluate doses for different scenarios. We enrolled 183 participants (121 females), with a median age of 26 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21-35), weight 55.0 kg (IQR 45.6-65.8), and fat-free mass 38.7 kg (IQR 32.7-46.0). Linezolid pharmacokinetics was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination allometrically scaled by fat-free mass and transit compartment absorption. The typical clearance value was 3.81 L/h. Simulations predicted that treatment with 300 mg daily achieves a high probability of target attainment (PTA) when linezolid MIC was ≤0.25 mg/L (61.5% of participant samples tested), while 600 mg daily would be required if MIC were 0.5 mg/L (29% of samples). While linezolid 300 mg daily is predicted to achieve effective targets for the majority of adults with MDR-TB, it failed to achieve the therapeutic target for 21% participants. A dose of 600 mg had a PTA >90% for all susceptible samples, but with a higher likelihood of exceeding toxicity thresholds (31% vs 9.6%). These data suggest potential benefit to individualized dosing taking host and microbial characteristics into account to improve the likelihood of treatment efficacy while minimizing risk of toxicity from linezolid for the treatment of MDR-TB. Further prospective evaluation in different clinical settings is urgently needed to inform safety and efficacy of these lower doses.

Resendiz-Galvan JE, Arora PR, Abdelwahab MT, Udwadia ZF, Rodrigues C, Gupta A, Denti P, Ashavaid TF, Tornheim JA. Pharmacokinetic analysis of linezolid for multidrug resistant tuberculosis at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai, India. Front Pharmacol. 2023 Jan 4;13:1081123. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.1081123. PMID: 36686664; PMCID: PMC9846493.