Pregnancy in Women with HIV in a Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy Trial

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Tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) is recommended for people with HIV infection, including during pregnancy. The effect of TPT exposure at conception and during pregnancy is poorly documented.


We report pregnancy outcomes among South African women with HIV enrolled in a randomized trial of 4 TPT regimens (two 3-month regimens, rifapentine/isoniazid [3HP] or rifampin/isoniazid [3HR], isoniazid for 6 months, or isoniazid continuously). Descriptive statistics and risk ratios were assessed to examine relationships between study regimens and outcomes.


216/896 women (24%) conceived during the study. Women who conceived were younger (27.9 vs 31.3 years) and had higher mean CD4 counts (589.1 vs 536.7). The odds of pregnancy were higher in women in the rifamycin-isoniazid arms than those in the isoniazid arms (3HP: relative risk [RR] 1.73, P = 0.001; 3HR:RR 1.55, P = 0.017) despite increased contraceptive use compared with the standard 6H therapy. Thirty-four women became pregnant while taking preventive treatment (8 rifamycin and 26 isoniazid monotherapy). Pregnancy outcomes in these women were as follows: 17 (50%) mother/baby healthy, 3 (9%) spontaneous abortions, 6 (18%) elective abortions, 1 (3%) premature delivery, 2 (6%) neonatal deaths [1 rifamycin-isoniazid and 1 isoniazid], and 5 (15%) unknown.


Pregnancy was common in women who had received TPT and more frequent in women who had received rifamycin-isoniazid–based regimens.

Singh P, Moulton LH, Barnes GL, Gupta A, Msandiwa R, Chaisson RE, Martinson NA. Pregnancy in Women With HIV in a Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2022 Dec 1;91(4):397-402. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000003078. PMID: 36000934; PMCID: PMC9613590.